Io Cheng TONG


(853) 8822 4774
OfficeE32 – 3001A
AddressFaculty of Law (FLL),
University of Macau, E32,
Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macau, China.
Office HoursWednesday 09h00~11h00
Secretary Ms. Lisa LEONG
(, Tel : 8822 4789)

Other Roles

  • Dean of Faculty of Law
  • Member of Faculty of Law Academic Council

Academic Qualifications

  • Ph.D. in Civil and Commercial Law, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
  • Master of Law, Sun Yat-sen University
  • Bachelor of Law, University of Macau

Teaching Area

  • General Theory of Civil Law
  • Civil Law
  • Research Project

Research Area

  • General Theory of Civil Law, Contract Law, and Property Law
  • Roman Law; Legal History; Legal Philosophy; Socialogical Analysis of Law; Family Law

Selected Publications

On the Basic Theory of Civil Law and Macau Contract Law

  1. “The evolutionary Outline of the Theory of Offer an Acceptance”, 〔新華文摘轉載〕 Peking University Law Journal, Vol.28, No. 5 (2016), pp. 1367-1380.
  2. “The Application of Doctrine of Causa in Portuguese(Macau)Civil Law” ,
    Journal of Soochow University, Law Edition.pp.77-85, Vol.3, No.1, 2016(1).
  3. “The Legal Regime of Preliminary Contract”
    University of Macau/Faculty of Law.
  4. “A Study on The Basic Theories of Civil Law and Macau Civil Law” ,
    SYS University Press, 2008.
  5. “The Theoretical and Institutional Origin of Mistakes on the Declaration of Intent” ,
    Journal of East China University of Political Science & Law, No.2,
    East China University of Political Science & Law, 2008.
  6. “The Background, Challenges, and future of Codification and Departmental Trend” ,
    Journal of CUPL. Vol.33, 2013(1).
  7. “On the Concept of Subjective Rights-Starting from the Macau Civil Law Context” ,
    Macau Law Review, Volume 3, University of Macau, 2011.
  8. “Macau Contract Law – International Encyclopedia of Law”,
    Kluwer Law International, 2009.
  9. “The Dichotomy of Public and Private Law and the Formation of Civil Law as Branch of
    Law-For the Preparation of a Textbook of Macau General Theory of Civil Law” ,
    Boletim de Estudos de Macau. 2014(2).
  10. “General Discourses of Civil Law and the General Part of the Macau Civil Code (Vol. I)” ,
    Beijing: Social Sciences Academic Press and Macau: Fundação Macau, 2015.
  11. “The Concept of Ius in Re and the Dichotomy of Ius in re and Ius in Personam
    in The Latin Legal Family” ,
    Private Law Review, No.2(Sum No.16)HUSTP, 2010.

On the Restatement and Reform of Land Law

  1. “The New Trends of Land Law Reform”,
    University of Macau, 2010.
  2. “On the Aforamento System in the Land Law of Macau”,
    Northern Legal Science, No.1, Volume 6, HeiLongJiang University, 2012.
  3. “The Concept of Expropriation and Requisition in Macau Law,
    Macao’s New Perspective, No.4, Macao Association for the Study of Youth, 2009.
  4. “As Fontes do Regime Jurídico da Propriedade Privada em Macau –
    Perspectiva Histórica e Comparativa da Legislação e As Modalidades
    Dos Direitos Relacionados Com o domínio dos Solos em Macau”,
    3as Jornadas De Direito E Cidadania Da Assemleia Legislativa Da RAEM,
    Hosted by the Legislative Assembly of Macao S.A.R..
  5. “On the Concept of ‘Titulus’ and its Application in Macau Land Laws”,
    Macau Law Review, Vol.9, 2013(10).
  6. “Between Harmony and Turbulence – The Evolution of Macau Land Law
    in the Colonial and the Post Colonial Context”,
    Juridikum – Zeitschrift für Kritik, Recht, Gesellschaft, nr 3/2010, Östterreich Verlag, 2010.

On the Promotion of Macau Legal Education and Legal Reform

  1. “The Road Towards a Sustainable Legal Order: In Search of the Rule of
    Law Ideal for ‘One Country, Two Systems’ in Macau within Post-Colonial Hybridity”,
    Academic Sinica Law Journal. No. 17, 2015(9).
  2. “The Theory of Legal Entity and The Organization Models of Macao Educational Institution”,
    Cheng Kung Law Reviem, No. 24.
  3. “The Formation of Macau Jurist”,
    the Collection of Papers presented to the Seminar of Rule of Law and the Improvement
    of Legal Systems, Union of Macau Scholars, 2010.

On the Study of Legal History, Roman Law and Philosophy

  1. “História de Direito Portugese”, (Translation)
    by Almedia Costa, University of Macau/Faculty of Law, 2004 & Law Press, 2014.
  2. “The History, Methodology and Jurisprudence of Legal Principle—
    A Restatement of Civil Law Principles”,
    Archives for Legal Philosophy and Sociology of Law. Vol.18, Law Press, China. 2015.
  3. “From Consensus Contract to Private Autonomy—the Road of Conquering
    the Civil Theory by Voluntarism”,
    Private Law Review, 2016(9).
  4. “The Position of Reason in Law”,
    WangJiang FaXue, Vol.9, Law Press China, 2015.
  5. “On the Human Sexuality and Law”,
    Macau Journal of Law and Politics, No. 2, Macau Legal System Research Association, 2015.
  6. “On the Form of Legal Transaction: from Roman Law to Modern Civil Law”,
    The Jurist, 2016(3), pp.30-41 .